عنوان مقاله [English]
The development process of organic cultivation in Iran is not favorable because the average growth rate of organic agriculture development from 2008 to 2019 according to FAO statistics in 2021 is equal to -0.47% and this is while foods contaminated with various substances Chemicals have an unpleasant effect on the general health of society. According to the statistics of 2021, 600 million people in the world, i.e. 1 out of every 10 people, will get sick after eating food. Since any change in the use of chemicals in agriculture should be based on the behavior of farmers, the purpose of this study is to investigate the behavioral intention to produce organic pistachio production among 5200 pistachio growers in Ardakan county, Yazd province, using the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (DTPB) analysis.
Material and Methods
The current research is classified as a quantitative research and is a descriptive-survey type of research, and in terms of the type of objective, it is considered a part of applied research. Based on Cochran's formula, the sample size was determined to be 358 people. Considering the distribution and dispersion of pistachio growers in different sectors, multi-stage random sampling was used. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of academic experts in the departments of horticulture, agricultural development, plant protection and psychology, as well as experts of Jihad Keshavarzi of the county. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire tool, a pre-test study was conducted among 30 farmers of Aqda Aflatak village, which was part of the villages of Ardakan city, but outside the study sample. The reliability of the questionnaire was estimated using Cronbach's alpha test. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was obtained from 0.649 to 0.836, which indicates acceptable reliability. SPSS22 and SmartPLS2 software were used for data analysis.
Result and Discussion
Descriptive findings showed that 358 respondents were 336 men and 22 women. Among them, 48 people lived in the village and 310 people lived in the city. The statistical results of the present study showed that the average age of the respondents was 53 years old, who had an average of 9 years of formal education. They had an average of 15 years of experience in the field of pistachio farming, and 30% of household income was dependent on pistachio production. According to the statistical sample of the research in terms of age, the highest frequency (137) were in the 41-50 age group. In terms of pistachio cultivation area, 204 farmers had less than one hectare, which constituted 59.9% of the studied sample. The inferential findings of this research showed that the factors affecting farmers' behavioral intention to produce organic pistachio products were perceived mental norms (β= 0/362) and perceived behavioral control (β=0/185). The findings of this research were in line with the results of Yadavar et al (2018). Also, the findings of this study showed the absence of a significant relationship between attitude and behavioral intention, which was not in line with the results of Safi Sis et al. (2020), Fatemi et al. (2018), Yadavar et al. (2018). According to the research model, the lack of a significant effect between the attitude variable and farmers' perception of the compatibility of organic production methods with their current values and needs, including consumers not purchasing organic pistachios, is notable. This lack of impact may be attributed to consumer-related challenges such as higher prices and insufficient information and awareness about organic products, which could hinder the financial feasibility of implementing organic production. Moreover, the research indicates that the attitude variable did not significantly influence farmers' perception of the ease of applying organic pistachio production methods in the orchard. As a result, the attitude variable did not exert a significant effect on behavioral intention in this context.
The most important factors in the behavioral intention to produce organic pistachios are the variables of subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. In fact, the issue of environmental protection and measures to prevent water, soil and environment pollution were the popular and accepted behaviors among the pistachio growers in the studied area, and the pistachio growers had come to believe that the use of organic production methods is one of the accepted behaviors of important and prominent people in their accepted social network. Therefore, it is suggested that the extension department of Ardakan Agricultural Jihad Management, by holding various meetings centered on leading farmers in the matter of organic production, provides effective networking for more exposure, contact and communication of pistachio farmers, so as to facilitate their decision making process to enter into organic pistachio production. Also, the findings showed that from the point of view of pistachio farmers, the use of organic production methods and operations is under the control and authority of the farmer and he can use it in his garden if he wishes. Therefore, it is suggested that the extension department of Jihad-Kashawarzi management of Ardakan county continues to provide educational, facilities and services support needed by pistachio farmers and in this regard, planning and providing services in the direction of changing the consumer's attitude towards buying organic products in various ways such as festivals, exhibitions and production Media programs. Considering the importance of removing obstacles to the implementation of organic production in pistachio orchards, it is suggested that necessary support measures be established by the government in the field of covering the operational costs of organic pistachio production until the pistachio farmers reach the markets of organic products inside and outside the country. It is also suggested that due to the diversity in the quality of water, soil and pistachio variety of the farmers, the extension department should organize training courses in such a way that they understand the ease of using this kind of methods and its management in the garden.