ارزیابی ریسک کمبود آب با استفاده از مدل برنامه‌ریزی تصادفی دومرحله‌ای تعاملی (مطالعه موردی: محدوده مطالعاتی مرند)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز - گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی

2 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی- دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

همگام با افزایش جمعیت کره زمین و توسعه اقتصادی، مسئله آب و مشکل کم­آبی در سال‌­های اخیر یکی از چالشی­ترین موضوعاتی است که به جهت درجه اهمیت و جایگاه اقتصادی آن بخش‌های متعددی را درگیر خود کرده­است و بیش از پیش مورد توجه دولت­ها و سازمان­های تحقیقاتی بین‌المللی قرار گرفته­است. این امر بر لزوم تخصیص بهینه این منابع برای ایجاد تعادل در توسعه اقتصادی-اجتماعی و صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب تأکید می­کند. بنابراین در این مطالعه ابتدا یک مدل برنامه­ریزی تصادفی دومرحله­ای تعاملی برای تخصیص منابع آب کشاورزی توسعه داده شده و سپس با استفاده از نتایج این مدل به ارزیابی ریسک کمبود آب تحت شرایط عدم­قطعیت پرداخته شد. چارچوب توسعه­یافته می­تواند انواع گزینه­های تصمیم­گیری را برای تجزیه و تحلیل مصالحه بین منافع سیستم و ریسک­های مربوطه فراهم­کند. علاوه­براین، ارزیابی ریسک کمبود آب به تصمیم­گیرندگان کمک می­کند تا شرایط ریسک کمبود آب در حالت­های مختلف را در نظر بگیرند و بر اساس آن اقدامات مناسب در مدیریت مصرف و عرضه آب صورت پذیرد. این چارچوب برای بهینه­سازی منابع آب کشاورزی محدوده مطالعاتی مرند واقع در حوزه آبریز رودخانه ارس که کل سطح شهرستان مرند (واقع در استان آذربایجان شرقی) را در بر می­گیرد، برای افق زمانی 1400-1399 اعمال شده­است. مقایسه نتایج بهینه تخصیص و شرایط واقعی (موجود) مصرف آب کشاورزی، نشان می­دهد تخصیص منابع آب با استفاده از مدل توسعه داده شده، موجب کاهش کمبود آب و تخصیص بیشتر و در عین حال کاراتر منابع آب در محدوده مطالعاتی شده و سود خالص سیستم را نیز افزایش می­دهد. نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی ریسک کمبود آب در محدوده مطالعاتی مرند نشان می­­دهد که مطابق با طبقه­بندی ریسک در این مطالعه، ریسک کمبود آب در این محدوده مطالعاتی در سطح بالا قرار دارد که بیانگر سطح ریسک جدی و بحرانی است. لذا در صورت ادامه روند فعلی تخصیص و بهره­برداری منابع آب، با توجه به تغییرات اقلیمی، افزایش جمعیت و تغییر میزان احتمال آب دردسترس در سال­های آینده، این سطوح ممکن است تغییر وضعیت داده و به سطح ریسک خیلی بالا (غیرقابل تحمل) نیز برسد که ادامه این روند کلیه سرمایه­گذاری‌ها و مبانی اقتصادی این محدوده مطالعاتی را تهدید می­کند. در مجموع نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان می­دهد که وضع موجود بهره‌برداری در این محدوده در شرایط نامناسبی قرار دارد و در صورت ادامه روش­های مدیریتی فعلی، منجر به افزایش بیش از حد بهره­برداری از منابع آب به خصوص آب زیرزمینی خواهد ­شد که این امر افزایش بیلان منفی آبخوان را به دنبال خواهد­داشت. بنابراین پیشنهاد می­شود در سیاستگذاری­ها و مدیریت منابع آب، روش­های علمی جدید جایگزین روش­های مدیریتی ناکارا و کم بازده شوند. استفاده از تکنولوژی­های صرفه­جویانه در مصرف آب و همچنین تغییر الگوی کشت به سمت کاشت گیاهان مقاوم به کم آبی در برخی مناطق، از دیگر اقدامات موثر در مدیریت ریسک  منابع آب در محدوده مطالعاتی به شمار می­روند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Water Shortage Risk Assessment Using an Interactive Two-stage Stochastic Programming Model (Case Study: Marand Basin)

نویسندگان [English]

  • javad hosseinzad 1
  • M. Raei 2
1 Department of Agricultural Economics - University of Tabriz
2 Ph.D. Student of Agricultural Economics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In recent years, the problem of water scarcity is becoming one of the most challenging issues with the economic development and population growth that have involved many sectors due to its importance and economic status and has received increasing attention from governments and international research organizations. This emphasizes the need for optimal allocation of mentioned resources to balance socio-economic development and save water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop an uncertainty-based framework for agricultural water resources allocation and calculate the amount of water shortage after allocation and also risk evaluation of agricultural water shortage. The developed framework will be applied to a real case study in the Marand basin, northwest of Iran. Perception of the amount and severity of risk on the system can be a good guide in the optimal allocation of resources and reduction of damage.
Materials and Methods: Since various uncertainties exist in the interactions among many system components, optimal allocation of agricultural irrigation water resources in real field conditions is more challenging. Therefore, introduction of uncertainty into traditional optimization methods is an effective way to reflect the complexity and reality of an agricultural water resources allocation system. Among different methods, inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) has proved to be an effective technique for dealing with uncertain coefficients in water resources management problems. ITSP is incapable of reflecting random uncertainties that coexist in the objective function and constraints. Considering the risk of violating uncertain constraints and the stochastic uncertainty of agricultural irrigation water availability on the right hand side of constraints and uncertainties related to economic data such as the revenue and penalty in the objective function which are expressed as probability distributions, the CCP method and Kataoka’s criterion are introduced into the ITSP model, thus forming the uncertainty-based interactive two-stage stochastic programming (UITSP) model for supporting water resources management. A set of decision alternatives with different combinations of risk levels applied to the objective function and constraints can be generated for planning the water resources allocation system. In the next step, on the basis of results of UITSP agricultural irrigation water shortage risk evaluation can be conducted by using risk assessment indicators (reliability, resiliency, vulnerability, risk degree and consistency) and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method.
Results and Discussion: A series of water allocation results under different flow levels and different combinations of risk levels were obtained and analyzed in detail through optimally allocating limited water resources to different irrigation areas of Marand basin. The results can help decision makers examine potential interactions between risks related to the stochastic objective function and constraints. Furthermore, a number of solutions can be obtained under different water policy scenarios, which are useful for decision makers to formulate an appropriate policy under uncertainty.
The results show that the dry season, i.e., July, August and September are the peak periods of water allocation and demand in Marand basin, which in these months, despite the higher water demand, the amount of water allocation in the current situation is less, which leads to more water shortages in these months. However, the results show that by increasing the efficiency of irrigation and water allocation using the developed framework, the amount of agricultural water allocation and demand is almost balanced and in addition to reducing water shortages, it leads to control over extraction from wells. Also, the goals of the regional water organization, which is reducing the amount of water allocated in the agricultural sector, will be achieved. Comparison with actual conditions shows that the allocation of water resources using the developed framework reduces water shortages while allocation becomes more efficient. Furthermore, the net system benefits per unit water increase which will demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the developed framework. Results of evaluation of agricultural irrigation water shortage risks indicate that the water shortage risks in the Marand basin are in the category of serious or critical risk level. Therefore, if the current trend of allocation and exploitation of water resources continues, with the population growth, climate change, increasing demand for agricultural products and changing the probability of available water in the future, the water shortage risk would increase to the unbearable risk level. The continuation of this process threatens all investments and economic foundations of this study area. Therefore, the risk of water shortage in the future should be managed by improving the water-saving technologies and also changing the cultivation pattern to drought resistant crops.
Conclusion: In this study, an uncertainty-based framework for agricultural water resources allocation and risk evaluation was developed, including model optimization of agricultural water and risk evaluation of water shortage. The developed framework is capable of fully reflecting multiple uncertainties. The developed framework will be helpful for managers in gaining insights into the tradeoffs between system benefits and related risks, permitting an in-depth analysis of risks of agricultural irrigation water shortage under various scenarios. The assessment of agricultural water shortage risk based on the results of the optimization model helps decision makers to obtain in-depth analysis of agricultural irrigation water shortage risk under various scenarios. In application of the developed framework to Marand basin, series of results of agricultural water resources allocation expressed as intervals, and agricultural water shortage risk evaluation levels under different flow levels and also different combinations of risk levels are generated. Comparison between optimal results and actual conditions of agricultural irrigation water allocation demonstrates the feasibility and applicability of the developed framework. Results of evaluation of agricultural irrigation water shortage risks indicate that the water shortage risks in the Marand basin are in the category of serious or critical risk level. Therefore, effective risk management measures should be taken first for different irrigation areas of Marand basin.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation
  • Interactive two-stage stochastic programming
  • Risk evaluation
  • Uncertainty
  • Water management
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