تعیین راهبردهای توسعه‌ی بخش کشاورزی استان مازندران

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

به­دلیل ویژگی­های بارز بخش کشاورزی، این بخش را می­توان محرکه­ی اقتصاد در چارچوب اقتصاد مقاومتی دانست. به­منظور تحقق اقتصاد مقاومتی، بایستی ضمن تعیین بخش­های پایه به­منظور سرمایه­گذاری بهینه، چالش­های و پتانسیل­های پیش­روی این بخش نیز شناسایی شوند. با توجه به قابلیت­های تولید محصولات کشاورزی در استان مازندران، در این مطالعه با استفاده از یک نوع تحلیل SWOT مبتنی بر رهیافت AHP که در آن اوزان نسبی بر خلاف مطالعات پیشین، از طریق یک مدل برنامه­ریزی ریاضی محاسبه می­شود، به شناسایی مشکلات و فرصت­های موجود در زیربخش «زراعت و باغداری» به­عنوان مهمترین زیربخش کشاورزی پرداخته شد. برای استخراج مقایسات زوجی عوامل داخلی و خارجی، با کارشناسان و خبرگان زیربخش زراعت و باغداری سازمان و ادارات جهاد کشاورزی استان مازندران مصاحبه شد. در نهایت، با استفاده از رهیافت QSPM، راهبردهایی برای توسعه این زیربخش، اولویت­بندی شد. برای تخمین نتایج نیز نرم­افزارهای Excel و GAMS مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. نتایج SWOT در تحلیل عوامل داخلی و خارجی حاکی از آن بود که برای توسعه­ی زیربخش زراعت و باغداری در استان مازندران، استراتژی­های تهاجمی می­تواند مفید باشد. همچنین، نتایج اولویت­بندی راهبردهای از طریق رهیافت QSPM نیز نشان داد که با توجه به استراتژی­های تهاجمی، در زیربخش زراعت و باغداری، «افزایش تحقیقات به­نژادی تهاجمی»، «ایجاد پایانه‌های صادرات میوه و تره‌بار» و «توسعه­ی صنایع تبدیلی» به­عنوان راهبردهایی در جهت مقاوم­سازی اقتصاد استان می­توانند مدنظر قرار گیرند. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، راهکارهایی همچون استفاده از پژوهشگران و دانش­آموختگان کشاورزی، حمایت و توسعه­ی صنایع تبدیلی و تکمیلی محصولات کشاورزی و توسعه­ی بازار و افزایش صادرات محصولات و فرآورده­های کشاورزی، پیشنهاد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Development Guidelines of the Mazandaran Province's Agricultural Sector

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Amirnejad 1
  • S.A. Hosseini-Yekani 2
  • S.M. Mojaverian 2
  • F. Kashiri Kolaei 2
  • M. Taslimi 2
1 Associate Professor of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
2 Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The resistive economy, in the sense of managing the current situation in the country, minimizes the risks. In other words, establishment of the necessary institution in Iranian economy by using a set of policies, laws, and executive measures in such a way to minimize its risk against harmful shocks and disturbances, especially foreign and international ones, would provide the ground for the country to achieve sustainable economic progress. One of the most important methods in this regard, in creating the infrastructure of a resistive economy, is development of the agricultural sector. In fact, due to the distinctive features of the agricultural sector, this sector can be considered as the driving force of the economy within the framework of the resistive economy. To achieve such an economy, the challenges and potentials facing this sector must be identified while determining optimal investment for the basic sectors. Due to the capabilities of agricultural production in Mazandaran province, in this study, for identifying the problems and opportunities in the subsectors of agriculture and horticulture, a type of SWOT analysis was used in which relative weights are calculated through a linear mathematical programming model. Finally, by using the QSPM approach, prioritization strategies were developed for each subsector.
Material and Methods: In the SWOT analysis, the AHP approach was used to extract the pairwise comparisons of internal and external factors from the opinions of the interviewed experts in the subsectors of agriculture and horticulture. SWOT analysis has been used to determine strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and the combination of linear programming. Therefore, AHP approach is used to calculate the weight for criteria and alternatives at each level. In this research, a two-step linear programming method has been used to calculate the priority vector. In the first step, according to the pairwise comparison matrix, a formulation that provides a consistency limit is used. In the second step, according to the compatibility limits obtained in the previous step, for calculating marginal weights of the criteria, another linear programming model is used. After calculating the relative weights of each of the components of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, as well as determining some strategies, using expert opinions, the QSPM approach has been used to prioritize strategies. For this purpose, the attractiveness coefficients of each strategy were extracted according to the Swot components and by multiplying the attractiveness coefficients by the relative weights, the total score for each Swot component was calculated for each strategy and finally with the total score of the Swot components, a total score for each strategy was calculated. Finally, Excel and GAMS software were used to estimate the results.
Results and Discussion: According to the results of SWOT analysis in the agriculture and horticulture sector, among the important strengths in Mazandaran province, this subsector can be ranked first in the production of various products, variety of climatic conditions and suitable water resources, the existence of fertile and suitable lands and variety of products. In contrast to the above strengths, weaknesses such as traditional and small units of exploitation, lack of guaranteed purchase and non-payment of debts on time by the government and cooperatives, low irrigation efficiency and low productivity of inputs (land, labor, etc.), lack of proper marketing system and the weak role of the government are some of important challenges in the subsectors of agriculture and horticulture in Mazandaran province. The opportunities facing the subsectors of agriculture and horticulture include the existence of ports and export terminals, existence of suitable fields for the construction of processing industries, improvement and establishment of fruit and vegetable terminals, and the existence of agricultural sub-graduates. The most important factors that threaten the activity of subsectors of agriculture and horticulture are related to the problems of financing and bank interest rates, land-use change and land trade, excessive import of agricultural and horticultural products, and small number of related processing industries. The results of prioritizing strategies through the QSPM approach also showed that according to aggressive strategies, in the subsectors of agriculture and horticulture, strategies like "Increased aggressive racial reform research ", "Establishment of fruit and vegetable export terminals" and "Development of processing industries", in the subsector of livestock  strategies like "Export development and entry into global markets", "Product and market development", "Establishment of facilities for export to the Caspian littoral states" and "Improvement of livestock breeds to increase production" , and in the subsector of fisheries "Aquaculture Development", "Development of Fisheries Industry", "Private and public sector support and investment" and "Establishment of facilities for export to international markets" are among strategies for strengthening the economy of the province and the country that can be considered.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is suggested that more attention in terms of capital support, and regional policies should be given to the subsectors of agriculture and horticulture in this situation. Also, appropriate measures should be taken to increase the productivity of the agricultural sector in line with the resistance economy. It is also suggested that solutions such as guaranteed purchase, providing facilities for small and job-creating projects, use of agricultural researchers and graduates for improving and implementing of racial reform research, support and development of processing industry of agricultural products, market development and increasing exports of agricultural products, should be used.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agriculture and Horticulture
  • Development Strategies
  • QSPM
  • Mathematical programming
  • Mazandaran
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