برآورد امنیت غذایی در استان کرمانشاه با تأکید بر شاخص FSI

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

2 رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

نقش تغذیه در سلامت، افزایش کارایی، یادگیری انسان‌ها و ارتباط آن با توسعه اقتصادی در پژوهش‌های وسیع جهانی به اثبات رسیده است و بررسی وضعیت امنیت غذایی کشورها در دهه کنونی به دلیل نقش برجسته آن در شکوفایی و باروری سرمایه انسانی هر کشوری حائز اهمیت می‎باشد. بر اساس مطالعات صورت گرفته، در نقشه جهانی امنیت غذایی، کشور ایران جزو مناطق پرخطر قرار گرفته است و این موضوع در تفاوت سطح امنیت غذایی در استان‌های کشور دیده می‌شود. از این رو در راستای دستیابی به سیاست‌های تأمین امنیت غذایی کشور طی برنامه‎های توسعه و سند ملی تغذیه، لزوم تعیین وضعیت استان‎ها حائز اهمیت می‌باشد. به همین دلیل، مطالعه حاضر با هدف برآورد امنیت غذایی در استان کرمانشاه صورت گرفته است و امنیت غذایی به‌ وسیله شاخص FSI که توسط صندوق بین‌المللی توسعه کشاورزی پیشنهاد شده است برای سال‎های 94-1383 برآورد شده است. داده‌های مورد استفاده در این مطالعه از پرسشنامه‎های درآمد و هزینه خانوار تهیه شده توسط مرکز آمار و همچنین سالنامه‌های کشاورزی که توسط وزارت جهاد کشاورزی تهیه و تدوین می‎گردد، استخراج شده است. نتایج محاسبات نشان می‌دهد که استان کرمانشاه در تولید محصولات عمده غذایی در طی دوره مورد مطالعه از خودکفایی برخوردار بوده است و میانگین ارقام شاخص امنیت غذایی طی دوره مورد مطالعه، بر اساس سناریوی اول (2100 واحد کالری) حاکی از وجود امنیت غذایی در استان کرمانشاه است؛ در حالی‌که بر اساس سناریوی دوم (2300 واحد کالری) این موضوع نقض می‌گردد. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه؛ پیشنهاد می‎گردد که با توسعه کشاورزی مدرن و مکانیزه و سوق دادن این بخش به سمت صنایع تبدیلی، زمینه رشد بخش کشاورزی با ارزش افزوده بالا را در استان کرمانشاه ایجاد نمود که نهایتاً به ارتقای امنیت غذایی منجر خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Food Security with an Emphasis on FSI Indicator in Kermanshah Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azad Khanzadi 1
  • Mohammad Sharif Karimi 2
  • Naeim Shokri 1
1 Razi University of Kermanshah
2 Razi University of Kermanshah
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The most comprehensive definition of food security, defined in 1996 World Food Summit, as follows: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, Safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. Food Availability: The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports (including food aid). Food Access: Access by individuals to adequate resources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Entitlements are defined as the set of all commodity bundles over which a person can establish command given the legal, political, economic and social arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional rights such as access to common resources).
Utilization: Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation, and healthcare to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all Physiological needs are met. This brings out the importance of non-food inputs in food security.
Stability: To be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks (e.g. an economic or climatic crisis) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal food insecurity). The concept of stability can, therefore, refer to both the availability and access dimensions of food security.
Materials and Methods: The complexity of food security estimation is beyond its definition and analysis. The indices such as the ratio of food supply per capita to required food, self-sufficiency, changes in production and consumption that shows sustainability in supply are usually used at global and national levels. This study used an index, which is satisfactory to estimate food security in Kermanshah Province, by considering an important part of the factors effective in food security. The index was offered by IFAD and it was calculated as follows:


In the above relation:
xl is the daily calories supply per capita in proportion to the required calories,
x2 is the annual growth rate of daily energy supply per capita,
x3 is food products production index,
x4 is self-sufficiency index,
x5 is production changes,
And x6 is consumption changes.
The first relation of this equation shows food security on the side of supply and demand (production and import) and the second relation shows it on the side of production. Means of the weight of two expressions, i.e. food consumption security with a coefficient of 0.77 and food production security with a coefficient of 0.23, shows food security index. Therefore, both the overall foodstuff supply and internal production role should be considered for a correct estimation of food security condition. Of course, further weight is considered for the first relation because supply provision in the first place is important - even through importing.
Results and Discussion: In this study, the food security of Kermanshah province has been assessed by using the FSI index. The results of calculations during the years 2004-2015 showed that the average of food security index, taking into account the 2100 calories standard, indicated the existence of food security in Kermanshah province, and considering the standard of 2300 calories, there was evidence of a lack in the food security of Kermanshah province. Another result of this study was that Kermanshah province has been self-sufficient in producing major food products during the studied period.
Conclusions: The detailed food security index in the province provides the following suggestions to improve the food security situation:
1- According to a survey conducted in the country, the unemployment rate of Kermanshah province according to the statistical center of Iran in the autumn of 2017 was 25.6%, which has the highest unemployment rate in the country. According to the self-sufficiency index of Kermanshah province, in all years this province has self-sufficiency in agricultural production and have no problem, but the problem of unemployment and consequently the low-income level of citizens causes the reduction in food security. Therefore, the implementation of policies to improve the province's employment status will consequently lead to improving food security.
2- Although Kermanshah Province has been in a favorable position in terms of self-sufficiency index of agricultural production; by developing the mechanized and modern agriculture of this province, it is possible to develop production and employment as well as to export agricultural products to other provinces, And even other countries of the region.
3- In the field of agricultural production in Kermanshah province, the necessity of adding conversion industries is felt because in this province, mainly, agricultural products are used raw and are not used industrially. On the other hand, Conversion industries will promote the value added of primary products and ultimately lead to improving food security.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Food security
  • FSI index
  • Kermanshah Province
  • Self-sufficiency index
  1. - Bagherzadeh Azar F., Ranjpor R., Karimi Takanlou Z., Motaffaker Azad M.A., and Assadzadeh A. 2016. "Estimation and Comparison of Food Security Status and the Impact of Economic Variables on it in Iran's Provinces", Journal of Applied Economics Theory, Third Year, No. 4, pp. 47-76.)In Farsi).
  2. - Bashir M. K., Schilizzi S., and Pandit R. 2012. The determinants of rural household food security in the Punjab, Pakistan: an econometric analysis. Working Paper No.122526, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
  3. - Breisinger C., and Ecker O. 2014. Simulating economic growth effects on food and nutrition security in Yemen: A new macro- micro modeling approach. Economic Modelling, 43, 100- 113.
  4. - Del Ninno C., Dorosh P. A., and Subbarao K. 2007. Food aid, domestic policy and food security: Contrasting experiences from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy, 32(4), 413-435.
  5. - Dini Turkamani Ali. 2004. "Estimation of Food Security in Iran and Assessing the Mode of Exposure to Competitive Theoretical Approaches to Food Insecurity", Proceedings of the Conference on Agriculture and National Development, Vol. 4, Institute for Planning Research and Agricultural Economics, Taban Publications, pages 953-982. (In Farsi).
  6. - Farrar C. 2000. A review of food subsidy research at IFPRI (Vol. 12). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
  7. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 1996. “Success stories in food security”, Vol. 2.
  8. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2006. “The state of Food and agriculture”, FAO, Rome.
  9. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2015. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World”, FAO, Rome.
  10. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2017. “The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017”, FAO, Rome.
  11. - Fotros M.H., Sahraei R., and Yavari M. 2017. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research. Ready-to-publish articles, online publication since August 18, 2017. (In Farsi).
  12. - Gloay Christophe. 2009. The Right to Food and Access to Justice: Example at the National Regional and International Levels, FAO, Rome.
  13. - Hassan Qomi M., Mirmiran P., Amiri V., Asghari G., Sadeghian S., Sarabazi N., and Azizi F. 2012. The Relationship between Food Security and Diversity in People over 40 in Tehran 13th District. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism of Iran, 4 (14), 367-360. (In Farsi).
  14. - Hosseini S.S., pakravan Charvadeh M.R., Salami H., and Flora C. 2017. The impact of the targeted subsidies policy on household food security in urban areas in Iran.
  15. - IFAD. 1994. The State of World Rural Poverty: A Profile of the Near East and North Africa (Rome).
  16. - Iran Statistical Center, Household Budget Plan. Available at (In Farsi).
  17. - Karam Soltani Z., Dorosti A., Ashrafian M.R., Siasi F., and Jazayeri A. 2007. Obesity and food security in primary school children in Yazd. Journal of Faculty of Medicine, 7 (65), 76-68. (In Farsi).
  18. - Khodadad Kashi F., and Heidari K. 2004. The Estimation of food security level of Iranian households based on AHFSI index. Quarterly Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, winter 2004, No. 48, pages 155 to 166.
  19. - Kolahdouz F., and Najafi F. 2013. National Monitoring System of Food and Nutrition Security in Iran and Development of the First Map of the Status of Food Security in the Country (Sempath Research). Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Deputy of Health, Community Nutrition Improvement Office. (In Farsi).
  20. - Mehrabi Bosharabadi H. and O'Hadi A. 2014. Factors Affecting Food Security in Iran. Agricultural Economics. Special Issue. Pages 111-121. (In Farsi).
  21. - Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, Information and Communication Technology Center, Agricultural statistics. Available at < https://www.amar.maj.ir >. (In Farsi).
  22. - Morshedi L., Lashgarara F., Hosseini S. J. F., and Najafabadi M. O. 2015. The Role of organic farming in improving food security in Fars Province. In Biological Forum-An International Journal, 7(2): 426-429.
  23. - National Nutrient and Food Technology Research Institute of Iran (NFTRI). 2012. The report of the status of the non-communicable disease in Iran, Tehran.
  24. - Pinstrup-Andersen P., and Shimokawa S. 2008. Do poverty and poor health and nutrition increase the risk of armed conflict onset? Food Policy, 33(6), 513-520.
  25. - Ranjpour R., Bagherzadeh Azar F., and Karimi Takanlou Z. 2016. A New Estimation of the Food Security level in the Green Economy with the GFSI Index, Third International Green Economy Conference, May, 2016. (In Farsi).
  26. - Salem J. 2016. The Relationship of Food Security with Urban Population and Development Plans (Case Study: Iran) Economic Modeling Quarterly. Volume 10, Issue 4, winter 1959, Pages 125-140. (In Farsi).
  27. - Samiei Nasab M., Soleimani Y., and Abdi S. 2016. The Ideal Model of Food Security in the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Resistive Economics System, Afaq Amniat Quarterly, Ninth Year, No. 30. Spring 2016. (In Farsi).
  28. - Shokri N. 2017. The Estimation of Food Security in Kemanshah Province with an Emphasis on FSI Indicator. Master thesis. Department of Economics. Faculty of Social Sciences. Razi University of Kermanshah. (In Farsi).
  29. - The Law of Development Plans and the Perspective of the Islamic Republic of Iran on the horizon of 1404. Available at .
  30. - World Bank .2016. World development indicators database. Accessed June 30, 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.
  31. - World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. 2017. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division, Key Findings and Advance Tables. New York, 2017.