عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The most comprehensive definition of food security, defined in 1996 World Food Summit, as follows: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, Safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. Food Availability: The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports (including food aid). Food Access: Access by individuals to adequate resources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Entitlements are defined as the set of all commodity bundles over which a person can establish command given the legal, political, economic and social arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional rights such as access to common resources).
Utilization: Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation, and healthcare to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all Physiological needs are met. This brings out the importance of non-food inputs in food security.
Stability: To be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks (e.g. an economic or climatic crisis) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal food insecurity). The concept of stability can, therefore, refer to both the availability and access dimensions of food security.
Materials and Methods: The complexity of food security estimation is beyond its definition and analysis. The indices such as the ratio of food supply per capita to required food, self-sufficiency, changes in production and consumption that shows sustainability in supply are usually used at global and national levels. This study used an index, which is satisfactory to estimate food security in Kermanshah Province, by considering an important part of the factors effective in food security. The index was offered by IFAD and it was calculated as follows:
In the above relation:
xl is the daily calories supply per capita in proportion to the required calories,
x2 is the annual growth rate of daily energy supply per capita,
x3 is food products production index,
x4 is self-sufficiency index,
x5 is production changes,
And x6 is consumption changes.
The first relation of this equation shows food security on the side of supply and demand (production and import) and the second relation shows it on the side of production. Means of the weight of two expressions, i.e. food consumption security with a coefficient of 0.77 and food production security with a coefficient of 0.23, shows food security index. Therefore, both the overall foodstuff supply and internal production role should be considered for a correct estimation of food security condition. Of course, further weight is considered for the first relation because supply provision in the first place is important - even through importing.
Results and Discussion: In this study, the food security of Kermanshah province has been assessed by using the FSI index. The results of calculations during the years 2004-2015 showed that the average of food security index, taking into account the 2100 calories standard, indicated the existence of food security in Kermanshah province, and considering the standard of 2300 calories, there was evidence of a lack in the food security of Kermanshah province. Another result of this study was that Kermanshah province has been self-sufficient in producing major food products during the studied period.
Conclusions: The detailed food security index in the province provides the following suggestions to improve the food security situation:
1- According to a survey conducted in the country, the unemployment rate of Kermanshah province according to the statistical center of Iran in the autumn of 2017 was 25.6%, which has the highest unemployment rate in the country. According to the self-sufficiency index of Kermanshah province, in all years this province has self-sufficiency in agricultural production and have no problem, but the problem of unemployment and consequently the low-income level of citizens causes the reduction in food security. Therefore, the implementation of policies to improve the province's employment status will consequently lead to improving food security.
2- Although Kermanshah Province has been in a favorable position in terms of self-sufficiency index of agricultural production; by developing the mechanized and modern agriculture of this province, it is possible to develop production and employment as well as to export agricultural products to other provinces, And even other countries of the region.
3- In the field of agricultural production in Kermanshah province, the necessity of adding conversion industries is felt because in this province, mainly, agricultural products are used raw and are not used industrially. On the other hand, Conversion industries will promote the value added of primary products and ultimately lead to improving food security.