عنوان مقاله [English]
The growing importance of energy resources in the formation and growth of economic processes, as well as the need to exploit these resources based on environmental considerations and sustainable economic development, the issue of energy saving as an important issue in all economic infrastructures, including industry. Global warming, declining crop yields, climate change and acid rain are the result of fossil fuel consumption. Hence, in recent years, there has been a growing global emphasis on renewable energy across both developed and developing nations. The primary objective is to decrease reliance on conventional energy sources, mitigate environmental pollution, and attain sustainable energy practices.
Materials and Ways
In the present study, a multi-objective mathematical planning model was designed, in which the optimal crop cultivation model in the southern grove area of Babol city, taking into account the maximum profit from the sale of crops, relying on expanding the use of renewable energy sources in the supply basket Irrigation water and reduction of fossil energy consumption used in irrigation water supply were determined. The objective functions of the study are in the form of two objectives: profit maximization and minimization of greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of profit considered in the present study is equal to the difference between income from crop production and total costs, including irrigation, planting and harvesting costs, seed costs, fertilizers and pesticides, and labor costs. The greenhouse gases considered in this study encompass CO2, N2O, and CH4, with the objective of minimizing their emissions for the determination of an optimal crop pattern. The study endeavors to resolve the proposed nonlinear multi-objective pattern utilizing the constraint epsilon method. Subsequently, employing the energy link indexes (E), the optimal solution is identified among the proposed alternatives through the TOPSIS multi-criteria decision model. The statistical population for this investigation comprises farmers in the southern forest area of Babol city. The analysis of results has been conducted using Matlab, Lingo, and Excel software.
Results and Discussion
In this study, a multi-objective model with objective functions of profit maximization and minimization of greenhouse gas emissions subject to energy, energy flow, water, fertilizer, and capital and land constraints using the method the constraint is resolved and eventually the study decision variables are obtained. In terms of recyclable energy, the model suggests that four types of Tarom rice, Shiroodi rice, soybean, and corn be grown with 0.40, 0.34, 0.14 and 0.12 ha / ha, respectively. As can be seen, in accordance with the outputs of the optimal model in terms of renewable energy, most of the cultivated land is allocated to Tarom and Shiroodi rice. The total amount of energy required in the optimal model in terms of renewable energy was 2518 kWh, of which fossil energy is 79% and solar energy is 21%. According to the calculations made in Equation 3, to provide 21% (518 kWh) of solar electricity required by the irrigation system in order to irrigate one hectare of the proposed model of the optimal model in the study area, a solar panel with a capacity of 0.22 kW will be required. The results of the model show that in terms of renewable energy, with the implementation of the proposed model, the profit of farmers in the region per hectare increases from 14776.21 to 14778.18 million rials compared to the situation of non-renewable energy in the entire growing season. In other words, in the current situation, people cultivate crops regardless of energy consumption and production costs (traditional method of rice production by local farmers), while by choosing the right model, the farmer's economic benefits can be increased by 0.013%. At the same time, it saved a significant amount of fossil energy consumption.The minimum emission target of the model in terms of renewable energy states that for the cultivation of 0.40 hectares of Tarom rice, 0.34 hectares of Shiroodi, 0.14 hectares of soybean and 0.12 hectares of corn, at the rate of 2836 kg equivalent to CO2 pollution Fertilizers, pesticides and fossil fuel consumption will be released, which is 9% less than the current situation where only fossil fuels are used to irrigate crops.
In the present study, the interests of farmers were considered by considering the maximum profit from the sale of agricultural products by relying on the use of renewable energy sources in the energy basket of the agricultural sector (by reducing the fuel consumption of fossil energy sources used) in determining the cultivation pattern. Optimally calculated and compared with current conditions. The results show that the optimal model in terms of renewable energy, shows a more appropriate achievement of goals than in the absence of renewable energy. To this end, it is suggested that agricultural policy makers, by promoting the use of solar energy in irrigation and the use of this large capacity in the country, justify farmers to the potential benefits of solar energy (in the agricultural sector) and its widespread use, reduce current agricultural subsidies in the energy sector. Fossilization and subsidizing solar energy, encouraging the private sector to invest in solar projects can help power irrigation projects.