ارزش‌گذاری اقتصادی منابع آب زیر زمینی در بخش کشاورزی (مطالعه موردی: دشت همدان- بهار)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

آب به عنوان یکی از نهاده‌های اساسی در تولیدات بخش کشاورزی، از جایگاه ممتازی در توسعه این بخش برخوردار می‌باشد. در دهه‌های اخیر با رشد جمعیت، افزایش تقاضا برای محصولات کشاورزی  و همچنین توسعه صنعت و کشاورزی، برداشت از منابع آب زیرزمینی بعنوان مهم‌ترین تامین کننده آب در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک نیز بطور چشمگیری افزایش یافته و منجر به پیشی گرفتن تقاضا بر عرضه منابع آب و ایجاد بحران در اغلب این مناطق شده است. بی‌شک یکی از مهم‌ترین ابزارها در کنترل و مدیریت تقاضای منابع آب و کاهش بحران حاصل از آن، بهره گیری از ابزارهای اقتصادی و لحاظ نمودن ارزش اقتصادی آب در فعالیت های کشاورزی بعنوان بزرگترین مصرف کننده آن می‌باشد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزشگذاری اقتصادی منابع آب زیر زمینی در دشت همدان- بهار با بهره‌گیری از الگوی برنامه‌ریزی پویا با استفاده از نرم‌افزار GAMS در سال زراعی 96-1395 می‌‌باشد. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق ارزش اقتصادی آب زیرزمینی به ازای هر متر مکعب در چهار ناحیه دشت همدان-بهار شامل منطقه همدان 3543 ریال، منطقه لالجین 4538 ریال، منطقه بهار 4015 ریال و منطقه صالح‌آباد 3690 ریال محاسبه گردید. هم‌چنین بازده ناخالص حاصل از فعالیت های کشاورزی هر یک از مناطق به‌ترتیب، همدان (708/6887810)، لالجین (150/7148527)، بهار (755/4741399)، صالح‌آباد (005/3639706) میلیون‌ ریال، بازده ناخالص کل مناطق (22417440) میلیون ‌ریال و میزان حجم آب مصرفی کل معادل 185629200 متر مکعب برآورد شد. بررسی و مقایسه ارزش اقتصادی برآورد شده با قیمت آب در نواحی مورد مطالعه نشان داد که ارزش اقتصادی محاسبه شده هر متر مکعب آب بیشتر از قیمت فعلی آب در منطقه می‌باشد، بطوریکه افزایش هزینه استفاده این نهاده از طریق ابزارهای مختلف سیاستی نظیر وضع قیمت آب می‌تواند نقش موثری در کنترل بهره‌برداری و تخلیه آبخوان داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic Valuation of Groundwater in Agriculture Sector (Case Study: Hamedan-Bahar Plain)

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Balali
  • F. Kasbian Lal
Agricultural Economics,, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Agriculture Faculty, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Our country is among regions facing water scarcity as a large area of Iran is located in arid and semi-arid climates. So, comparing the annual average rainfall with annual mean annual precipitation on the planet, the rainfall in Iran is less than one-third of the the world, in addition, the amount of rainfall and the area in which the agricultural main water user are located, does not match.The average annual rainfall in the world is about 850 mm and for Iran is about 250 mm, which is 40% less than the annual rainfall in Asia and approximately 33% less than the annual average of the world. The province of Hamedan has an area of 19493 square kilometers, located in the west of Iran between 33 degrees and 59 minutes to 35 degrees and 44 minutes north latitude, 47 degrees 47 minutes and 49 degrees, and 30 minutes east along the meridian of Greenwich.
This province area consists of four plains including bahar, Kabotrahang, Razan and Qahavand. The water catchment area of Hamedan-Bahar plain, also known as Siminrood, is located on the northern slopes of Alvand altitudes with an area of 2,243 square kilometers. The plain is 880 km2 and the surface area of the main aquifer is 468 km2 (Fig. 1).
Figure 1- Location of Hamedan-Bahar Plain and its Main Aquifer Area
This plain, based on climatic divisions, is located in a cold semisolid climate and has a cool, mountainous climate. The ban on the development of exploitation of groundwater in the Hamedan-Bahar plain has been applied since the year 1992 due to the negative balance and the susceptibility of supplying drinking water in the cities of Hamedan, Bahar, Laljin.
Around, 330 of the 609 plains in the country have been declared forbidden due to excessive perceptions. Hamedan-Bahar plain has been faced with a serious problem of water shortages due to excessive withdrawal of groundwater and negative water balance and the expansion of the area under irrigated production, as the annual rate of groundwater loss in this plain is 1 meter.
The main objectives of this research are to estimate the economic value of groundwater in the agricultural sector of Hamedan-Bahar plain and to determine the optimal cropping pattern in the studied area using the GAMS programming model and mathematical programming.
Eshraqi and colleague (7) on "Estimating the economic value of water in wheat production in Gorgan," have surveyed the demanders using a production function approach in 2012-2013. The results show that the economic value of water was estimated at 1564.5 Rials per cubic meter of water. Zeratakish (23), on "The economic valuation of water in the agricultural sector with an environmental approach in the Lichter plain", used a multidisciplinary mathematical programming approach. The economic value of water with a limit of 50, 60 and 70 percent was determined as 250, 1500 and 3050 rials, respectively.
Mohammad Ayattha Watto and Amin William (2016) addressed a positive mathematical planning approach for estimating and valuing groundwater in Pakistan. Their results indicate that limiting groundwater extraction forces farmers to irrigate the demand for water. Azavara et al. (2012), conducted a study using the PMP method to evaluate the economic irrigation water in three California regions. The analysis of the results showed that the final economic value of water is at least 2.5 times the price paid by the users.
Materials and Methods
In this study, a dynamic mathematical programming model was used to evaluate the economics of groundwater in the agricultural sector. The general form of the model is as follows:




Max:NPVGM= ] * *


(1)




S.t:


 




 


(2)




 


(3)




 


(4)




The objective function (equation 1) of the dynamic programming model is to maximize the gross returns of the crop activities of the region.In this equation NPVGM is the return of the program from the agricultural activities of the study area, p_i the price of the product i, y_ijs of the product i produced with the irrigation system j in area s (kg/ha), c_ijs, the variable cost of production of product i with irrigation system j In area s per hectare, cw water consumption cost, cfer fertility cost, CE fertilizer cost, cpes cost of various chemical pesticides and co cost of other inputs including power, machinery. In this regard, X_ijs is the crop area i produced by irrigation method j in s, w, water input, fertilizer input chemical fertilizer, e energy input, pes input chemical pesticide, and other inputs. The limitation of production inputs, including water, land, labor, and chemical inputs and the market, is generally referred to in equation (2) in which b_ijs is the technical coefficient of inputs and B_i is the amount of each of them. Equation (4) represents the cost function of water used for agricultural activity in which pw is the price or tariff of a unit of water, CWE_e The cost of extracting water from the surface of the earth and pumping and distributing it at the farm level per unit area (ha) and AW The amount of water consumed per hectare is from different crops.
Results and Discussion
As the Table 1 shows, products such as tomatoes, watermelons, sugar beets and chickpeas have been eliminated from the cultivar pattern, the high water requirement, the energy required for these products and the low price, have led to an increase in farmers production costs if this pattern is implemented in the area, so cultivation of these products have not been economical for farmers in the region. The cultivation of potato and alfalfa products that have high water demand are significant in the pattern, which can be due to the economic benefits and high yield of these two products in the region. Cultivation of cobbler products, such as cucumber, is low in optimal cropping patterns. Low-crop cultivation such as corn, rapeseed, garlic and pumpkin in the optimal pattern is due to market constraints in the region and low yields of these products (corn, rapeseed, garlic and pumpkin).
Table 1- The Pattern of Cultivating the Studied Area in Optimum (unit: ha)




Product


hamedan


lalejin


Bahar


salehabad




Alfalfa


1489.500


1760.773


381.977


-




Barely


-


1526.398


-


-




Corn


-


500


-


-




Canola


-


291.727


708.273


-




Cucumber


-


2552.500


-


-




Garlic


800


-


-


-




Potato


1489.500


2552.500


1090.250


1204




Pumpkin


-


-


500


-




Wheat


1489.500


1026.102


1090.250


1204




Beans


689.500


-


590.250


1204




Source: Research Results
Estimating the economic value of groundwater in the regions
According to Table 2, the economic value of groundwater for each meter in Hamedan region is 3543 Rials, Lalejin 4538 Rials, 4015 Rials bahar and Salehabad 3690 Rials.
As these figures indicate, any additional water supply unit in the region can increase the gross margin of farmers as much as the calculated economic value of water. The average economic value of water in the Hamedan plain-spring is 3946.5 Rials.
Table 2- Results of Groundwater Economical Valuation in the Study Area (Rials)




Area of study


Economic value of water (per cubic meter)




hamedan


3543




lalejin


4538




bahar


4015




salehabad


3690




Average plain of hamedan- bahar


3946.5




Source: Research Results
Conclusion
Since the main objective of this study is to estimate the economic value of water in the region, the results showed that the economic value per cubic meter of calculated water in the study area is higher than the current price of water in the region. Therefore, any additional unit of water intake in the region can be as much as the calculated economic value of the water to increase the gross margin of farmers in the studied area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dynamic Mathematical Programming
  • Economic valuation
  • Groundwater
  • GAMS
  • Hamedan-Bahar plain
  1. Amirnezhad H., Fazelian S., and Hosseini Yekani S.A. 2015. Groundwater Valuation in Agricultural Exploitation, Case Study: High Gravel Long Range Rice in Behshahr Plain. The First International Conference and Third National Conference on Agricultural Engineering and Management of the Environment and Sustainable Natural Resources. Feb 29.
  2. Ansari V., and Mirzaie H. 2015. The Study of the Effect of the Policy of Pricing Agricultural Products on the Economic Value of Water (Case Study: Sugar Beet Cultivation in Neyshabur City). Journal of Agriculture Economic and Development of Iran. Volume 46. Number 3.
  3. Al-Karabliehk E., Salman Z.A., Al-Qmari S.A., Wolf H., Al-Assad A.T., Hunaiti A.D., and Subah M.A. 2012. Estimation of the economic value of irrogation waterin Jordan. Agriculture Science and Technology B2: 487-497.
  4. Aizadeh A. 2009. Applied Hydrology. Sixteenth Edition. Imam Reza Publishing House.
  5. Alizadeh A. 2003. Applied Hydrology.Imam Reza Publishing House.
  6. Bakhshi A., and Moghadasi R. 2015. Application of Positive Mathematical Planning for Water Allocation in the Agricultural Sector, Case Study: Sarakhs Plan Agriculture. Agricultural Economics and Development Economics. Year 23. No 92.
  7. Bakhshi A., Daneshvar Kakhaki M., and Moghadasi R. 2011. Application of Positive Mathematical Programming Model to Analyze the Effects of Alternative Water Pricing Policies in Mashhad Plain. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development (Agricultural Sciences and Technology) 25(3): 284-294.
  8. Balali H., Khalilian S., Viaggi D., Bartolini F., and Ahmadian M. 2011. "Groundwater balance and conservation under different water pricing and agricultural policy scenarios: A case study of the Hamadan-Bahar plain". Ecological Economics 70: 863–872.
  9. Balali H., and Viaggi D. 2015. “Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios”. Water, 7(10): 5258-5271. DOI: 3390/w7105258.
  10. Cortignani R., and Severini S. 2009. Modeling farm- level adoption of deficit irrigation using positive mathematical programming. Agricultural Water Managemen. 96: 1785-1791.
  11. Chandrasekaran K., Devarajulu S., and Kuppannan P. 2009. Farmers' Willingness to Pay Forirrigation Water: A Case of Tank Irrigation Systems in South India. 1: 5-18.
  12. Dehghanpour H., and Sheikh Z. 2013. Determining the Economic Value of Agricultural Water in the Yazd- Ardakan Plain of Yazd Province. Agricultural Economics and Development 21. No 82.
  13. Eshraghi F., Keramatzadeh A., and Golzari Z. 2016. Estimating the Economic Value of Water in Wheat Production in Gorgan. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture Volume 30. Number 4.
  14. Ghaderzadeh H., Hajirahimi M., and Abdolghozlojeh A. 2013. Determination of the Economic Value of Irrigation Water in Potato Production Using Production Function Estimation Method in Hamedan- Bahar Plain. The Firse National Conference on Water Crisis. May 25-26. Khorsgan.
  15. Gallego-Ayala J. 2012. Selecting Irrigation Water Pricing Alternatives Using a Multimethodological Approach. Mathematical and Computer Modeling. Article in Press.
  16. Gharghani F., Bostani F., and Soltano Gh. 2009. The Effect of Irrigation Water Reduction and Water Price Increase on Cultivar Pattern Using Positive Mathematical Programming Method, Case Study: Eghlid City in Fars Province. Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol, 1. No. 1.
  17. Howitt, Medllin-Azuara J., Macewan D., and Lund R. 2012. Calibrating Disaggregate Economic Models of Agricultural Production and Water Management. Journal of Science of the Environmental Modelling and Software 38: 244-258.
  18. Huang G.H., Rozelle S., Howitt R., and Wang J. 2010. Irrigation Water Demand and Implications for Water Pricing Policy in Rural. China International Food and Agriculture Policy 143: 57-79.
  19. Keramatzadeh A., Hassanvand M., and Tahmasebi J. 2016. Investigating the Farmers' Response To Agricultural Water Policies In The Agriculture Sub-Sector Of Khorramabad Using PMP", Journal Of Agricultural Economics And Development, Vol. 24, No. 93, Spring.
  20. Keramatzadeh A., Chizari A., and Sharzei. 2011. The Role of the Water Market With Projective Military Planning Approach, A Case Study: Downstream of Shirin Dam, Bojnourd Valley. Journal of Iranian Agricultural Economics and Development Research 42-47(1): 27-42.
  21. Keramatzadeh A., Chizari A., and Mirzaei A. 2006. Determining the Economic Value of Agricultural Water Using the Optimal Crop Model Model for Agrarian and Horticultural Integration. Case Study: Barz and Shirvan Dam. Agricultural Economics and Development. 54: 60-35.
  22. Mousavi S.H., Shahabi S. 2015. The Effect of Guaranteed Purchase Policy on Wheat Crop on the Economic Value of Groundwater Resources, Case Study: Orzouyeyeh-Kerman Plain. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 29(2): 217-223.
  23. Mesa-Jurado M.A., Martin-Ortega J., Ruto E., and Berbel J. 2012. The economic value of guaranteed water supply for irrigation under scarcity conditions. Agricultural Water Management 113: 10-18.
  24. Mousavi N., and Gharghani F. 2011. Assessment of Agricultural Water Policy Assessments from Groundwater Resources Using Positive Mathematical Programming Model, Case Study: Eghlid County. Quarterly Journal of Economic Research 11(4): 65-82.
  25. Medellan-Azuara J., Harou J., and Howitt R. 2010. Estimating economic value of agricultural water under chaning conditions and the effectsof spatial aggregation. Science of the Total Environment 408(1): 5639-5648.
  26. Molle F., Venot J., and Hassan Y. 2008. Irrigation in the Jordan Valley: are Water Pricing Policies Overly Optimistic?. Agricultural Water Management 95: 427-438.
  27. Nabizadeh Zolpirani M., Amirnezhad H., and Shanazari A. 2014. Estimating the Economic Value of Water for Rice Crop Using the Production Function Method (Case Study: Babol). 16th National Rice Conference. January 27-28.
  28. Parhizgari A., Sabouhi M., Ahmadpour M., and Badia Barzin H. 2014. Simulation of Farmers' Response to Pricing Policies and Irrigation Water Quotas, Case Study: Zabol City. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 28(2): 164-176.
  29. Rafiei H., Aghapoursabaghi M., and Darbandi E. 2012. Estimating the Economic Value of Water in Corp Production, A Case Study of Gotvand County. National Conference on Water and Wastewater Engineering.
  30. Rahnama A., Kohansal R., and Dorandish A. 2012. Estimating the Economic Value of Water Using a Positive Mathematical Programing Approachan in Quchan City. Journal of Agricultural Economics 4(4): 133-150.
  31. Rigby D., Alcon F., and Burtons M. 2010. Supply Uncertainty and the Economic Value of Irrigation Water. European Review of Agricultural Economics 37: 97-117.
  32. Anonymous, Salnameh Amari Hamedan. 2015. Deputy Governor of Hamedan Governorate Planning.
  33. Vaziri A., Vakilpour M.H., and Mortazavi S.A. 2016. The Effect of Irrigation Water Economical Price Pricing on the Pattern of Cultivation in Dehgolan Plain. Agricultural Economics Research 8(3): 81-100.
  34. Yoo J., Simonit S., Connors P.J., Maliszewski J.P., Kinzig P.A., and Perrings C. 2013. The Value of Agricultural Water Rights in Agricultural Properties in the Path of Development. Ecological Economics 91: 57-68.
  35. Zeraatkish S.Y. 2016. Environmental Economics Assessment of Water in the Agricultural Sector with Environmental Approach. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Research 2-47(1): 259-269.
  36. Zarei N., Mehrabi Basharabadi H., and Khosravi M. 2014. Estimating the Economic Value of Water in Potato Corp Production, Case Study: Villages in Kurdestan and Hamedan Provinces. Quarterly Journal of Rural Development Strategics 10(3): 19-32.
  37. Zaremehrjerdi M. 2011. Determination of Optimal Cropping Pattern and Water Valuation Using Combination of Mathematical Planning Methods Under Risk and Residual Value, Case Study: Azerouyeh Region of Baft. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture Vol: 25. No 2.

 

CAPTCHA Image