تدوین مدل راهبردی (TOWS) در توسعه صنایع تبدیلی تکمیلی خرما در استان خوزستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف کلی تدوین یک مدل راهبردی (TOWS) در توسعه صنایع تبدیلی تکمیلی خرما در استان خوزستان انجام شد. در این پژوهش ابتدا با استفاده از مطالعات تحلیلی و ادبیات موضوع نقاط چهارگانه SWOT یعنی 7 قوت، 7 ضعف، 7 فرصت و 6 تهدید مشخص و سپس با استفاده از تکنیک AHP اولویت‏بندی شدند. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کارشناسان آگاه و متخصص موضوع در سازمان‏های ذیربط بودند که به طور هدفمند 24 نفر به عنوان نمونه برای مطالعه انتخاب شدند. پردازش اطلاعات با تکنیک SWOT-AHP و با استفاده از نرم‏افزار Expert Choice‌ انجام شد. یافته‏های پژوهش نشان داد که در ارزیابی معیارها، نقاط ضعف، تهدید، قوت و فرصت اولویت‏های اول تا چهارم را به خود اختصاص دادند که نشان‏دهنده غالب بودن فضای مخاطره‏آمیز بر فضای مفید بود. علاوه بر این نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که در میان نقاط قوت نقطه «کاهش ضایعات خرما و استفاده بهینه از آن در راستای افزایش قدرت اقتصادی مناطق»، نقاط ضعف «ضعف فناوری و عدم توان رقابت با کشورهای تولید کننده خرما»، نقاط فرصت «تغییر ترکیب محصولات صادراتی و رهایی از صادرات تک محصولی و فله‏ای» و نقاط تهدید «کاهش سرمایه‏گذاری در بخش کشاورزی و توسعه زیرکشت نخیلات» در دستیابی به توسعه صنایع تبدیلی تکمیلی از مهم‏ترین نقاط هستند. علاوه بر این، در اولویت‏بندی نواحی استراتژیک نتایج نشان داد که راهبرد اول WT یعنی راهبرد دفاعی، راهبرد دوم WO یعنی راهبرد انطباقی، راهبرد سوم راهبرد ST یعنی راهبرد اقتضایی و در نهایت آخرین راهبرد در موضوع مورد بررسی راهبرد SO یعنی راهبرد تهاجمی بود. با توجه به غالب بودن فضای مخاطره‏آمیز بر فضای مفید پیشنهاد می‏شود توجه ویژه‏ای به برطرف نمودن نقاط ضعف و تهدید شود زیرا عدم توجه به این مسئله در استان خوزستان به عنوان قطب تولیدکننده خرما ممکن است خطرات جبران‏ناپذیری را در بلندمدت به دنبال داشته باشد و جایگاه خود را در این زمینه از دست بدهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Design of a Strategic Model (TOWS) for Development of Date Complementary and Processing Industries in Khuzestan Province

نویسنده [English]

  • M. Savari
Assistant Professor Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: A common definition of agro-processing industry refers to the subset of manufacturing that processes raw materials and intermediate products derived from agricultural sector. Thus, agro-processing industry means transforming products originating from agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Indeed, it includes a very large part of agricultural production undergone some degree of transformation between harvesting and final use. The industries that use agricultural, fishery and forest products as raw materials comprise a very varied group. They range from simple preservation (such as sun drying) and operations closely related to harvesting the production, by modern, capital-intensive methods, of such articles as textiles, pulp and paper agriculture and industry have traditionally been viewed as two separate sectors both in terms of their characteristics and their role in economic growth. Agriculture has been considered the hallmark of the first stage of development, while the degree of industrialization has been considered to be the most relevant indicator of a country’s progress along the development path. Moreover, the proper strategy for growth has often been conceived as one of a more or less gradual shift from agriculture to industry, with the onus on agriculture to finance the shift in the first stage. Development of complementary industries and agriculture can be a good way to prevent injuries and to increase the value-added agricultural products. Given that in developing countries, especially in Iran, almost one-fourth of agricultural products are wasted only due to lack of storage facilities and conserving industries. Agro-processing industries, as a part of rural development process, can play a great role in preventing the waste of agricultural products, producing added value products, increasing rural families’ income, improving productivity, and increasing the share of industrial employment in rural areas. Many of the industries using agricultural raw materials have in fact those characteristics that make them particularly suitable for the circumstances of many developing countries. Where the raw material represents a large proportion of total costs, its availability at a reasonable cost can often offset such disadvantages such as lack of infrastructure or skilled labor. Furthermore, for many agro industries, a small plant may be economically efficient, which is another important factor in developing countries where the domestic market is limited by low purchasing power and sometimes by the small size of the market itself. Therefore, this research aimed at the overall Design Strategic Model for Development of Complementary Date Conversion Industries in Khuzestan Province. Since Khuzestan province is the first date producer in Iran.
Methodology: This research was conducted to compile a strategic model (TOWS) in developing industry of date palm complementary and processing in Khuzestan province. In this research, firstly, by using analytical studies and literature review, the subject of the four SWOT points including: 7 weaknesses, 7 opportunities, 7 strengths, and 6 threats were identified, and then were prioritized by the AHP technique. The statistical population of this study included experts in relevant organizations that 24 of them were selected, purposefully as a sample for the study. Data processing was performed using SWOT-AHP technique and using Expert choice software.
Results and Discussion: Findings showed that in evaluating the criteria, weaknesses, threats, strengths, and opportunities were ranked from best to worst, respectively, which indicates the dominance of risky space over useful space. Furthermore, the results showed that among the strengths, “reduction of date waste and its optimal use in order to increase the economic power of the regions” was the most important point. In addition, among the weaknesses, “technology weakness, and inability to compete with date producing countries” was the most prominent point. For opportunities; “changing in composition of export products, and getting rid of single-product and bulk export”, and also for the threat points,” reducing investment in agricultural sector and developing date palm cultivation” were the most influential points. Furthermore, in prioritizing strategic areas, it was concluded that the first strategy was WT (defense strategy), the second strategy was WO (adaptive strategy). Furthermore ST strategy (contingency strategy) was third, and finally SO strategy (invasion strategy) was the last strategy. Considering the predominance of hazardous space over useful space, it is recommended to pay special attention to this issue, because neglecting it in Khuzestan province, as a center of date production, would cause irrecoverable risks in long term.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • SWOT-AHP Analysis
  • Strategic Model
  • rural industries
  • industrialization
  • sustainable livelihood
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