برآورد ضریب ریسک‌گریزی کشاورزان شهرستان اسفراین و عوامل مؤثر بر آن (رویکرد ناپارامتریک)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ارسنجان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

با توجه به ماهیت توأم با ریسک و عدم قطعیت بخش کشاورزی، مطالعه حاضر به منظور بررسی ضریب ریسک‌گریزی کشاورزان شهرستان اسفراین انجام شده است. در این راستا از جدیدترین روش ناپارامتریک محاسبه ضریب ریسک‌گریزی و با بهره‌گیری از مدل برنامه‌ریزی درجه دو (QP) استفاده شده است. بدین منظور داده‌های پانلی 100 کشاورز، طی 4 سال (1388- 1391) و برای 14 محصول جمع‌آوری شده است. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد اکثر کشاورزان منطقه مورد مطالعه دارای درجه ریسک‌گریزی بسیار زیاد و شدیداً ریسک گریز می‌باشند. حق بیمه اجتناب از ریسک کشاورزان نمونه مورد بررسی 303113 ریال به دست آمده است. همچنین متغیر سن تأثیر مثبت و سطح ثروت و تنوع کشت تأثیر منفی بر ضریب ریسک‌گریزی کشاورزان داشته است. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده توسعه بیمه و سرمایه‌گذاری در زمینه بورس کالاهای کشاورزی به منظور کاهش ضریب ریسک‌گریزی پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of Esfarayen Farmers Risk Aversion Coefficient and Its Influencing Factors (Nonparametric Approach)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Nematollahi 1
  • S.A. Hosseini-yekani 2
  • M. Hosseinzadeh 3
1 Sari University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources
2 Sari University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources
3 University of Zabol
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Due to existence of the risk and uncertainty in agriculture, risk management is crucial for management in agriculture. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the risk aversion coefficient for Esfarayens farmers.
Materials and Methods: The following approaches have been utilized to assess risk attitudes: (1) direct elicitation of utility functions, (2) experimental procedures in which individuals are presented with hypothetical questionnaires regarding risky alternatives with or without real payments and (3): Inference from observation of economic behavior. In this paper, we focused on approach (3): inference from observation of economic behavior, based on this assumption of existence of the relationship between the actual behavior of a decision maker and the behavior predicted from empirically specified models. A new non-parametric method and the QP method were used to calculate the coefficient of risk aversion. We maximized the decision maker expected utility with the E-V formulation (Freund, 1956). Ideally, in constructing a QP model, the variance-covariance matrix should be formed for each individual farmer. For this purpose, a sample of 100 farmers was selected using random sampling and their data about 14 products of years 2008- 2012 were assembled. The lowlands of Esfarayen were used since within this area, production possibilities are rather homogeneous.
Results and Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was low correlation between some of the activities, which implies opportunities for income stabilization through diversification. With respect to transitory income, Ra, vary from 0.000006 to 0.000361 and the absolute coefficient of risk aversion in our sample were 0.00005. The estimated Ra values vary considerably from farm to farm. The results showed that the estimated Ra for the subsample existing of 'non-wealthy' farmers was 0.00010. The subsample with farmers in the 'wealthy' group had an absolute risk aversion of 0.00003, which is lower than for the subsample existing of farmers in the 'non-wealthy' group. This assumption that the absolute risk aversion is a decreasing function of wealth is in accordance with Arrow (1970) expectation. The method used was to calculate the proportional risk premium (PRP) representing the proportion of the expected payoff of a risky prospect that the farmers would be willing to pay to trade away all the risk for a certain thing, proposed by Hardaker (2000). Our finding showed that the higher risk averse the farmer was, the higher will the PRP would be. Farmers risk premium was 303113 IRR. It should be mentioned that the 'non-wealthy' group had a larger PRP than the 'wealthy' group. Following Freund (1956), if the net revenue for each activity is normally distributed and assuming a negative exponential utility function, we can utilize the absolute risk aversion coefficient to obtain relative risk aversion coefficient (Rr). Based on this study, Rr vary from 0.31 to 8.49 and the relative coefficient of risk aversion in our sample was 4.79. Our results showed that the majority of farmers in the study area are highly risk averse (Anderson and Dillon, 1992). The relationships between the relative risk aversion coefficients of farmers and their socio-economic characteristics were also evaluated in this study. Results showed that the age had a positive impact, level of wealth and diversity had negative impacts on farmers' risk aversion coefficient.
Conclusion: Due to existence of the risk and uncertainty in agriculture, the present study was designed to determine the risk aversion coefficient for Esfarayen farmers. A new non-parametric method and the QP method were used to calculate the coefficient of risk aversion. The model used in this analysis found the optimal farm plan given a planning horizon of 1 year. Thus, the historical mean GM vector and variance-covariance matrix were assumed to represent farmers beliefs. Our results showed that the majority of farmers in the study area are highly risk averse. In addition the more risk averse the farmer was, the higher will the PRP would be. Farmers risk premium was 303113 IRR. Our finding showed that the age had a positive impact, level of wealth and diversity had negative impacts on farmers risk aversion coefficient. According to the results, insurance development and investment in agricultural commodities exchange was suggested to reduce the coefficient of risk aversion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coefficient of risk aversion
  • Esfarayen
  • Non-parametric method
  • QRP method
1- Anderson J.R., Dillon J., and Hardaker J.B. 1977. Agricultural Decision Analysis. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 344 pp.
2- Anderson J.R., and Dillon J.L. 1992. Risk analysis in dryland farming systems. Farming Systems Management Series No. 2, FAO, Rome.
3- Aye G.C. and Oji K.O. 2007. Effect of poverty on risk attitudes of farmers in Benue State, Nigeria, 12th Annual Conference of Econometric Modeling for Africa, 4- 6 July, Cape Town, South Africa.
4- Bahrami A., and Aghi H. 2005. Risk management in agricultural fields. Journal of Agricultural and insurance, 2(8). )in Persian(.
5- Binswanger H.P. 1980. Attitudes toward risk: experimental measurement in rural India. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 62, 395-407.
6- Dillon J.L., and Scandizzo P.L. 1978. Risk attitudes of subsistence farmers in north-east Brazil: a sampling approach. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 60, 425-34.
7- Ebadi Ghadim A.K., and Pannell D.J. 2000. Risk attitudes and risk perceptions of crop producers in Western Australia. Paper presented at Australian Agriculture and Resource Economics Society 44th Annual Conference. Sydney, 23-25 January 2000.
8- Ehsan A., and Eslami Bidgoli Gh.R. 2008. Study of risk aversion Coefficient and production variance in risk management, case study Tomato Growers in Dezful. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 16 (61): 17- 34. (in Persian(.
9- Fallah Haghighi N., and Zarifian Sh. 2006. Evaluation of Factors affecting the risk understanding in women that cultivated rice producers in Rasht city in 2004-2005. Social-psychological studies of women (Women's Studies), 4(1): 21-5.)in Persian(.
10- Freund R.J. 1956. The introduction of risk into a programming model. Econometrica 24, 253-263.
11- Golkaranmoghadam, S. 2014. Production risk and risk trends of saffron farmers in Torbat with an emphasis on poverty indicators, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 22(87): 1- 21.)in Persian(.
12- Hall D.C., Knight T.O., Coble K.H., Baquate A.E., and Patrick G.F. 2003. Analysis of beef producers risk management perceptions and desire for further risk management education. Review of Agricultural Economics, 25 (2): 430-448.
13- Hardaker I.B., Huirne R.B.M., and Anderson J.R. 1997. Coping with Risk in Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 274 pp.
14- Hardaker J.B. 2000. Some issues in dealing with risk in agriculture. Working Papers in Agricultural and Resource Economics. School of Economic Studies, University of New England, Armidale.
15- Hosseinzadeh M. 2012. Regional planning in the context of the cultivation pattern (case study: Esfarayen). Master Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Mashhad.)in Persian.(
16- Karami A. 2010. Evaluation of influencing Factors of likelihood of acceptance of wheat insurance in Kohgiloyeh province. Agricultural Economics, 5 (2): 250-232.)in Persian(
17- Lien G. 2002. Non-parametric estimation of decision makers' risk aversion. Agricultural Economics 27, 75-83.
18- Markowitz H. 1952. Portfolio selection. J. Finance 7, 77-91. Moscardi, E., de Janvry, A., 1977. Attitudes toward risk among peasants: an econometric approach. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 59, 710-716.
19- Mirdamadi S.M., and Shokri Sh.A. 20012. Explaining the components of risk management in dairy farms (Case study of Karaj). Journal of Agricultural Extension and Education. 5(4): 7-18.)in Persian.(
20- Mortazavi S.A., Ghorbani M., Alaei Broujeni P., and Alipour A. 2012. Affecting factors of the Risk production of pomegranate approach to poverty (Case Study: the villages of Shahreza), Journal of Agricultural Economics, 4 (3): 21- 37.(in Persian).
21- Roslan N.A., Abdullah A.M., Ismail M.M., and Radam A. 2012. Influence of secio- economic factors on farmers behaviors toward risks. UMT 11th international Annual Symposium on Sustainability Science and Management. Terengganu. Malaysia.
22- Sabouhi M., and Mahmoudi N. 2007. The effect of income risk on the selection of the optimum cropping pattern, case study Jaban village's city of Damavand, sixth Iran Agricultural Economics Conference, poster.)in Persian(
23- Tahami pour M. 2008. Evaluation of affecting factors in production Risk of pistachios in Zarand, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, (63): 1- 19. (in Persian(.
24- Teweldemedhin M.Y., and Ka fiddi L. 2009. Risk management strategies of cattle farmers in Namibia: Case study from Omaheke and Otjozondjupa regions. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 1 (2): 63-70.
25- Torkamani J. 2000. Evaluation of methods to determine the risk attitude of agricultural farmers: A Case Study of maintaining dairy. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development. 31.(in Persian).
26- Torkamani J., and Zibaei M. 2003. The structural estimation of risk attitude of Ramjerd's Wheat farmers, Journal of Iranian Agricultural Science, 34(1): 105- 113.)in Persian)
27- Yaghoubi A.H., Chizari M., and Feli S. 2007. Insurance of Agricultural production: appropriate way to risk management. Sixth Conference of Agricultural Economics, poster. )in Persian.(
28- Yazdani S., and Feiz Abadi Y. 2005. Evaluation of The degree of risk aversion of Poultry farmers and its affecting factors: A Case Study of Sabzevar, agricultural sciences, 2: 15- 24.)in Persian(.